In recent years there has been an increasing trend toward the incorporation of computers into a variety of devices where the amount of memory available is limited. This makes it desirable to try to reduce the size of applications where possible. This article explores the use of compiler techniques to accomplish code compaction to yield smaller executables. The main contribution of this article is to show that careful, aggressive, interprocedural optimization, together with procedural abstraction of repeated code fragments, can yield significantly better reductions in code size than previous approaches, which have generally focused on abstraction of repeated instruction sequences. We also show how \\\\\\