In this work new artificial learning and innate control mechanisms are proposed for application in autonomous behavioral systems for mobile robots. An autonomous system (for mobile robots) existent in the literature is enhanced with respect to its capacity of exploring the environment and avoiding risky configurations (that lead to collisions with obstacles even after learning). The particular autonomous system is based on modular hierarchical neural networks. Initially, the autonomous system does not have any knowledge suitable for exploring the environment (and capture targets ?? foraging). After a period of learning, the system generates efficient obstacle avoidance and target seeking behaviors. Two particular deficiencies of the former autonomous system (tendency to generate unsuitable cyclic trajectories and ineffectiveness in risky configurations) are discussed and the new learning and control techniques (applied to the autonomous system) are verified through simulations. It is shown the effectiveness of the proposals: the autonomous system is able to detect unsuitable behaviors (cyclic trajectories) and decrease their probability of appearance in the future and the number of collisions in risky situations is significantly decreased. Experiments also consider maze environments (with targets distant from each other) and dynamic environments (with moving objects).